Find out about Lichen


Have you ever seen this stuff hanging from a tree? Maybe you have found some crusty stuff on a rock and wondered what it was. Probably it was lichen. When you go for your nature walks this month, keep a lookout for all kinds of lichen. First of all, let’s learn a little bit about it so you know what to look for.

Here is a little video about lichen:

Here are a couple questions to find answers to:

  1. What is the difference between moss and lichen?
  2. What are a three different types of lichen?

It is interesting to get a field-guide type book about lichen from your library and have a look at all the different kinds. Draw an example of each kind in your nature journal and include any other information you find interesting.

We used this field-guide and read this fun book about a turtle who is growing all sorts of things on her shell.



Track the Moon


Moon calendar November 2017


Look for the moon each night and keep track of how it changes. It may not be possible to see it every night due to clouds or forgetting, but try to do it as often as possible. You can just draw a series of circles in your nature journal, or here is a printable page to help you keep track: Moon Journal. Note the date and time for each moon picture. Perhaps you may want to draw one big moon picture on the date of the full moon and note the craters and shapes you can see.

You can find out when the moon is, and when the moon will rise and set in your part of the world here: Moonrise and Moonset.

Visit a Farm

This is harvest time for many kinds of produce. The area where we live is not particularly great for growing crops – it is very rocky and the soil is thin. However, not too far away lies the Annapolis Valley which is good land for agriculture.


We took a trip up to Noggins Farm which has a large apple u-pick. Apples are one of the main crops in Nova Scotia. They also have a large corn maze, a pumpkin patch and various other kinds of fruit and vegetables for sale.


We picked several different types of apples so that we could compare them (as well as a couple leaves to add to our journal). We drew our favourite apple and cut it open crosswise to see where the seeds grow, and drew that too.

Then we made some yummy Apple Cake:

  • 1/4 cup butter or margarine
  • 1 cup sugar
  • 1 egg
  • 1 tsp vanilla
  • 1 cup flour
  • 1/2 tsp baking soda
  • 1/2 tsp baking powder
  • 1/2 tsp salt
  • 1 tsp cinnamon
  • 1/2 tsp nutmeg
  • 3 cups diced, peeled apple (about 3 large apples)

Cream butter and sugar. Add eggs and vanilla. Combine dry ingredients and stir into the creamed mixture. It will be somewhat stiff. Stir in the apples well. Put into a greased 8″ square pan. Bake at 350 F for 45-50 minutes.


Visit a farm that grows food or a Farmer’s Market in your area. Bring something that is grown locally home and explore it. Sketch it in your journal. Find out how it grows – on a tree, a vine, a bush, under the ground? (if you can see how it grows at a farm, that is even better),  Does it come in different shapes, colours or sizes? Does it have seeds in it? What does it taste like? What kinds of things is it used for? Note all these things in your journal, including the date and location.

Five Broadleaf Trees

There are lots of lovely trees in Canada, and many of them are of the broadleaf variety (as opposed to the needle variety). This is a challenge to get to know five broad leaf or deciduous (meaning they lose their leaves every year) trees in your neighbourhood. The easiest way to tell trees apart is by their leaves, but the bark, the flowers, the seeds, the leaf buds and twigs are also helpful.


If you are new to tree identification, you may find it easiest to collect leaves that are noticeably different and identify them by their “genus” rather than their “species”. Some of the common trees by genus you might find in Canada are: Maple (Acer), Oak (Quercus), Birch (Betula), Poplar or Aspen (Popula), and Beech (Fagus).

We decided to find out how many different species of Maple trees lived near us. All maples have leaves with three main lobes which are set opposite on the twigs. All maples have similar-looking seeds called samaras with a set of thin wings which allow them to be carried a little ways by the wind.

The first one was in our backyard. It is a Red Maple, but the interesting thing about Red Maples is that they can be male or female or both. Ours is male. It is covered in the small male, pollen-producing flowers in the spring, but it never produces seeds. Its buds are red, its flowers are red, and in the fall, it turns a lovely dark red. These trees are native to Canada, and are very common in the forests of Nova Scotia. Their leaves are not very large, although they are bigger on younger trees. The seeds are shed in the early summer. The bark is smooth and light grey at first and becomes a darker grey with long, narrow ridges as it matures.

We also have a Norway Maple in our yard. These trees were imported from Europe as shade trees. Their leaves are quite large and they stay on the tree very late into the fall, finally turning yellow before they fall off. They have beautiful yellow-green flower clusters in the spring. These become large samaras with wings that stretch out to each side, and that drop off late in the fall.

We found a Sugar Maple during a walk in an older area of town. These are the trees most often tapped for maple syrup. They are a long-lived tree, but very slow growing which means their wood is harder and more valuable. Their seeds are not very large, and the wing parts are almost parallel. They drop in the fall. The leaves turn gorgeous yellows, oranges, and reds in the fall.

There was a Mountain Maple growing on the side of the road not far from us. The leaves are three-lobed and a bit wrinkly. They are more like large, multi stem shrubs. Their flower clusters stand erect on the twig in the spring. The seeds are quite small and hang on late into the winter.

The Striped Maple we found in the forest, growing by a little fast flowing stream. It has beautiful green bark when young, and as it grows, the outside breaks into furrows and lets the white underbark show through which makes it look striped. Its leaves are three-lobed, and large for its size.  They turn a lovely bright yellow in the fall. The flowers are loose, drooping clusters of little yellow bell-like flowers.

Nature Journal:

Choose five different leaves from your nature walk, press them and then attach them to a page in your nature journal (or you can draw them, or trace them and colour them in, or use photographs if you prefer). You can use modge podge to attach them. This will keep them from drying out and disintegrating. Paint the back of the leaf, put it where you want it on your page and smooth it down, then paint over the whole leaf and a little beyond the edges, and let it dry. Take care not to put two leaves facing each other on your journal pages, as they will stick to each other when you close the book. Add any details you can find about the trees such as tree shape, flower, fruit or seed, bark and anything else you find interesting.

Fall Land Art

Fall in Nova Scotia has been gorgeous this year. There haven’t been any rainstorms for awhile, and no heavy frosts yet, and so the colours seem to be lasting for a long time. It feels a bit like living in a fire – everywhere you look there are trees in flame colours.

The leaves are excellent possibilities for land art. What is land art? It is an art movement in which nature is used as the means of creating art where it is. This website offers some ideas based on the British land artist Andy Goldsworthy: Playing with leaves and sticks.


Another option is to do what everyone else is doing and carve a pumpkin.


You can buy pumpkins everywhere it seems. Choose one that is shaped nicely so that it will sit properly and make something out of it. If you want to put a candle in it, cut the hole in the pumpkin in the bottom to scoop out all its guts. Then you can use a tealight or put the candle in a small candle holder, light it easily, and place the pumpkin on top.


Or you could try something a little different…


Save all those slimy seeds you scoop out, wash them, coat them with a bit of olive oil and salt and roast them in the oven until they are golden.

Remember to take pictures of your creation for your nature journal!

Have fun!



How often have you just stood still for fifteen minutes or so in your backyard or in a park nearby and just noticed what was going on? Most of the time we are going somewhere, or performing a task, and the little things go unnoticed.


Find a place outdoors where you can sit comfortably for fifteen minutes and just pay attention to what is happening around you. This place should be close to you so that it is easy to do (your back yard or a quick trip down the road), and it should have some possibility of nature exposure but it doesn’t have to be perfect.

Try to go there every day or so for several days and take your journal along. Notice the weather (temperature, wind, sky), the sounds (birds, water, trees), physical things (plants, creatures), and anything else that stands out to you. Record them in your journal as you notice them.

Autumn this year in Nova Scotia has been beautiful for this kind of activity (mostly warm and sunny) but it is interesting to do it in any kind of weather.

What else can you do outside this time of year?

  • Rake leaves to jump in and throw around (take some pictures for your journal).
  • Plant bulbs in the ground for flowers next spring (draw them first).
  • Clean up the dead plants in the garden if you have one (look out for seed pods and squirmy creatures in the soil).

October Nature Walk

Today we went for a walk in the forest behind our house. The forest here on the east coast of Nova Scotia is mostly second growth due to heavy logging in the past. It is mostly spruce, fir and the occasional pine, with maple, oak, birch and alder sprinkled in.

Our goal was to gather some pretty coloured leaves and see what else we could see in the forest at this time of year.

The ferns are dying back and were glowing a lovely golden colour.


It is always fun to spot the fungi along the trail. Sometimes they are beautiful colours.

We also found a few different kinds of lichen. The little pixie cup lichen, lungwort and caribou lichen. The good thing is that the presence of lichen often indicates good air quality.

It’s always fun to find the wintergreen patches. The leaves smell so good when you scrunch them up with your fingers.


We didn’t come across much in the way of wildlife, but we saw evidence of a squirrel in a mound of deconstructed pinecones at the base of a spruce tree, and saw a turkey vulture in an old pine tree.


The forest trail leads into a clear cut that was logged several years ago. It has filled in with various shrubs and trees.


October Nature Walk Challenge:

Go somewhere where you can walk for at least half and hour in the forest. Bring a bag to collect some coloured leaves or other things you might find. Take photos if you want to try to identify what you found. Press any leaves you found between newspaper with a couple of heavy books on top.

octpoemartWhile you are out, notice the colours of October. When you get back, take some of the leaves you have collected and create some leaf prints in your journal. Paint the backs of the leaves in the colours of fall (use acrylic paint) and then press them onto a page in your nature journal. Print out the poem (Poem for October) and when your lovely painting has dried, cut the poem out and paste it on top of your painting.

Have fun!

Deciduous Trees

Every year in Canada certain types of trees change colour and drop all of their leaves. It is lovely to look at and there is a old saying that catching a falling leaf will bring you good luck.


Research Project:

Do some searching in your local library for some books on trees and autumn. Here are a few that we found:


Or you may want to check out this online book: The First Book of Trees.

Draw a tree in your nature journal and label its parts. Here is an example from Knowing the Trees:


Find the answers to these questions and any others that you may have, and include them in your nature journal.

  1. Why do some trees lose their leaves in the fall?
  2. Why do the leaves change colour?

It is a fun idea to make friends with a tree near where you live and visit it often over the year to see how it changes. For some ideas on how to do a tree study, check this out: TreeStudy.

Five fall wildflowers

There seems to be always something in bloom, from the first dripping icicle to the first snowfall. What wildflowers can you find blooming this time of year where you live?

The flowers that bloom along the roadsides, in the meadows and forests, and along the coastlines are those which have naturalized to a specific place. Native plants are part of the uniqueness of a place and are a necessary part of the well-being of a region. Often, however, many of the plants we may think are native have been introduced by human activity and are harmful to those species that have existed there for a much longer time.

We went for a walk down our road and found five flowers in bloom:

The New York American Aster


This is native to the maritime region and beyond. It prefers forest edges, shorelines, roadsides and stream banks.

Queen Anne’s Lace


The five-petalled flowers grow in a white cluster and form a seed head like this later on. This is a non-native plant and is invasive. It is native to Europe, Asia and Africa. Apparently it was “first noted in eastern North America in 1739, developed from carrot seeds that escaped gardens and reverted to their weedy ancestral form” (Wildflowers of the Maritimes, Edmund Redfield).

Canadian Goldenrod


This is a native plant, and contrary to what some may think, it cannot cause allergies because it is pollinated by bees and not by the wind. It is edible and has many health benefits.

Rabbit’s Foot Clover


This is a plant native to Europe and western Asia that is now common across North America. It spreads only by seed and grows in open, dry places such as roadsides or sandy fields.

Jewelweed (Touch-me-not)


This is a native plant and likes to grow in damp woods, streams and ditches. The sap in its leaves and stem can help with insect bites and rashes like poison ivy. It gets its name from the ripe seed pod which explodes when touched to scatter the seeds.

Create a mini herbarium:

Collect blooms and leaves from five or so wildflowers you find and press them between newspaper and a couple heavy books. Leave them for a few days. Identify them using a field guide for wildflowers from your area (you can usually find these in the public library), or do a search for a wildflower guide for your area on the internet – there are some very helpful websites available. When your flowers are dry, mount them in your nature journal. You can use a glue stick for this, or layer Mod Podge both underneath and on top of your pressed specimens. Label.

Field Trip to Water

Where we live, one is almost always within a short distance of water – lakes, rivers, streams, ponds, and the ocean. For our field trip, we went to a place where there is both a pond and the ocean.


The goal was to sit quietly in one place for about 15 minutes and observe. We chose to sit by the pond first. As we came close to the edge, there was a lot of movement and bubbles which turned out to be tiny little minnows which returned once we were still.


A dragonfly and a damselfly dropped in for a short while.

There was bur reed growing along the edge of the pond with it’s unusual seed pod. When we touched them, they broke apart into individual seeds in our hands.


Ants started bothering us where we were sitting so we crossed over the land barrier between the pond and the beach and visited the ocean as well. It was low tide, and it was noisy with the waves breaking on the shoreline, and smelled strongly of salt and rotting seaweed.


We noticed water making little rivers down the beach, a snail moving across the rock, a few strange patterns in the sand, and found a beautiful crab shell.

We had been reading about barnacles a few days ago, and would have liked to see one open with it’s feet sticking out, but the barnacles we could find were out of the water.


Field Trip:

Go visit some water somewhere – a lake, pond, river, seashore. Sit with your nature journal for 15 minutes and observe.

Draw something that you see in the water, something you see on the water, something you see beside the water on the beach or bank. What noises do you hear? What colours do you see? Are there any birds or animals nearby? Note the date, the location and the weather. Enjoy!

These are great little books to help you investigate a beach and a pond: